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Conceptual design of a GEM (gas electron multiplier) based gas Cherenkov detector for measurement of 17 MeV gamma rays from T(D, y) 5He in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas

Putignano O.; Croci G.; Muraro A.; Cancelli S.; Caruggi F.; Gorini G.; Grosso G.; Kushoro M.H.; Marcer G.; Nocente M.; Perelli Cippo E.; Rebai M.; Rigamonti D.; Tardocchi M.

The only method for assessing the fusion power throughput of a deuterium-tritium (DT) reactor presently relies on determining the absolute number of 14 MeV neutrons produced in the DT plasma. An independent method, developed and investigated during the recent DT campaign at the Joint European Torus, is based on the absolute counting of 17 MeV gamma rays produced by the competing T(D, gamma)5He reaction that features a very weak branching ratio (about 3-6 × 10-6) when compared to the main T(D, n)4He reaction. The state-of-the-art spectrometer used for gamma-ray measurements in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas is LaBr3(Ce) scintillator detectors, although they require significant neutron shielding to extract a relatively weak gamma-ray signal from a much more abundant neutron field. A better approach relies on a gamma-ray detector that is intrinsically insensitive to neutrons. We have advanced the design of a gamma-ray counter based on the Cherenkov effect for gamma-rays whose energy exceeds 11 MeV, optimized to work in the neutron-rich environment of a steady-state, magnetically confined fusion plasma device. The gamma-rays interact with an aluminum window and extract electrons that move into the radiator emitting photons via the Cherenkov effect. Since the Cherenkov light consists of few photons (25 on average) in the far UV band (100-200 nm), a pre-amplifier is required to transport the photons to the neutron-shielded location, which may be a few meters away, where the readout elements of the detector, either a silicon or standard photomultiplier tube, are placed. The present work focuses on the development of a scintillating GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) based pre-amplifier that acts as a Cherenkov photon pre-amplifier and wavelength shifter. This paper presents the result of a set of Garfield++ simulations developed to find the optimal GEM working parameters. A photon gain of 100 is obtained by biasing a single GEM foil to 1 kV.

ID 476561
DOI 10.1063/5.0101761
PRODUCT TYPE Journal Article
LAST UPDATE 2023-01-30T14:41:50Z
TITLE Implementation of activities described in the Roadmap to Fusion during Horizon 2020 through a Joint programme of the members of the EUROfusion consortium