In nature physical systems are often far from thermodynamical equilibrium.
Low Temperature Plasmas (LTP) are plasmas in which electron energies are of the order of ionization potential of atoms and molecules– in the range of a few eV – while ions and the neutral energies are at low temperature – close to room temperature.
These Low Temperature Plasmas are non-equilibrium systems, with electron temperature larger than ion temperature even of orders of magnitude.
Low Temperature Plasmas are found in the Universe and can be also generated by electric discharges. LTP are of relevance in many interesting fields and for various technological applications.
Complex physical processes, occurring both in plasma bulk and at the surface, are very active in LTP.